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Warm early Mars surface enabled by high-altitude water ice clouds

Warm early Mars surface enabled by high-altitude water ice clouds

Edited by Mark Thiemens, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, and approved March 10, 2021 (received for review February 4, 2021)Mars is cold today but once had lakes. We evaluated the water ice cloud greenhouse hypothesis for warming early Mars. Our results reconcile previous discrepant results by showing that the cloud greenhouse provides strong warming if the surface has patchy surface H2O but not if there is very extensive surface H2O. In our model, arid, warm, stable climates emerge with surface H2O (and low clouds) only at locations much colder than average surface...

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May 4
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Lymphangiogenesis-inducing vaccines elicit potent and long-lasting T cell immunity against melanomas

Lymphangiogenesis-inducing vaccines elicit potent and long-lasting T cell immunity against melanomas

In melanoma, the induction of lymphatic growth (lymphangiogenesis) has long been correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis, but we recently showed it can synergistically enhance cancer immunotherapy and boost T cell immunity. Here, we develop a translational approach for exploiting this “lymphangiogenic potentiation” of immunotherapy in a cancer vaccine using lethally irradiated tumor cells overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and topical adjuvants. Our “VEGFC vax” induced extensive local lymphangiogenesis and promoted stronger T cell activation in both the...

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Mar 1
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Leadership or luck? Randomization inference for leader effects in politics, business, and sports

Leadership or luck? Randomization inference for leader effects in politics, business, and sports

Anecdotal evidence suggests that some leaders are more effective than others but observed differences in outcomes between leaders could be attributable to chance variation. To solve this inferential problem, we develop a quantitative test of leader effects that provides more reliable inferences than previous strategies, and we implement the test in the settings of politics, business, and sports. We find significant effects of political leaders, particularly in nondemocracies. We find little evidence that chief executive officers influence the performance of their firms. In addition, we find...

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Jan 1
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Preexisting immunity shapes distinct antibody landscapes after influenza virus infection and vaccination in humans

Preexisting immunity shapes distinct antibody landscapes after influenza virus infection and vaccination in humans

Humans are exposed to influenza virus throughout their lifetimes through a combination of infections and vaccinations. Yet, it remains unclear whether infection and vaccination induce distinct influenza-specific immunological memory. To address this question, Dugan et al. compared antibodies produced by individuals after influenza infection or vaccination. The authors found that infection-induced antibodies reacted to non-neutralizing epitopes of influenza virus, whereas vaccination-induced antibodies reacted to neutralizing epitopes. In addition, infection-induced antibodies preferentially...

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Dec 9
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The impact of sex on gene expression across human tissues

The impact of sex on gene expression across human tissues

In humans, the inheritance of the XX or XY set of sex chromosomes is responsible for most individuals developing into adults expressing male or female sex-specific traits. However, the degree to which sex-biased gene expression occurs in tissues, especially those that do not contribute to characteristic sexually dimorphic traits. is unknown. Oliva et al. examined Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project data and found that 37% of genes in at least one of the 44 tissues studied exhibit a tissue-specific, sex-biased gene expression. They also identified a sex-specific variation in cellular...

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1Section of Genetic Medicine
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Sep 11
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