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Network asynchrony underlying increased broadband gamma power

Network asynchrony underlying increased broadband gamma power

Synchronous activity of cortical inhibitory interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) underlies expression of cortical gamma rhythms. Paradoxically, deficient PV inhibition is associated with increased broadband gamma power in the local field potential (LFP). Increased baseline broadband gamma is also a prominent characteristic in schizophrenia and a hallmark of network alterations induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as ketamine. Whether enhanced broadband gamma is a true rhythm, and if so, whether rhythmic PV inhibition is involved or not, is debated....

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Feb 16
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Adult trkB signaling in parvalbumin interneurons is essential to prefrontal network dynamics

Adult trkB signaling in parvalbumin interneurons is essential to prefrontal network dynamics

Inhibitory interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) are central to cortical network dynamics, generation of gamma oscillations, and cognition. Dysfunction of PV interneurons disrupts cortical information processing and cognitive behavior. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/Tyrosine receptor kinase B (trkB) signaling regulates the maturation of cortical PV interneurons but is also implicated in their adult multidimensional functions. Using a novel viral strategy for cell-type-specific and spatially restricted expression of a dominant-negative trkB (trkB.DN), we show that BDNF/trkB...

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Feb 16
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Origins of modern human ancestry

Origins of modern human ancestry

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtainthe best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode inInternet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without stylesand JavaScript.AdvertisementNew finds in the palaeoanthropological and genomic records have changed our view of the origins of modern human ancestry. Here we review our current understanding of how the ancestry of modern humans around the globe can be traced into the deep past, and...

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Laboratory earthquake forecasting: A machine learning competition

Laboratory earthquake forecasting: A machine learning competition

Edited by David A. Weitz, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and approved November 28, 2020 (received for review August 3, 2020)Earthquake prediction, the long-sought holy grail of earthquake science, continues to confound Earth scientists. Could we make advances by crowdsourcing, drawing from the vast knowledge and creativity of the machine learning (ML) community? We used Google’s ML competition platform, Kaggle, to engage the worldwide ML community with a competition to develop and improve data analysis approaches on a forecasting problem that uses laboratory earthquake data. The...

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Indoor versus outdoor transmission of SARS-COV-2: environmental factors in virus spread and underestimated sources of risk

Indoor versus outdoor transmission of SARS-COV-2: environmental factors in virus spread and underestimated sources of risk

AdvertisementIndoor versus outdoor transmission of SARS-COV-2: environmental factors in virus spread and underestimated sources of riskThe first case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in Europe was officially confirmed in February 2020. On 11 March 2020, after thousands of deaths from this disease had been reported worldwide, the WHO changed their classification of COVID-19 from a public health emergency of international concern to a pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been shown to be much more resistant...

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Feb 10
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Reference-based QUantification Of gene Dispensability (QUOD)

Reference-based QUantification Of gene Dispensability (QUOD)

Advertisement 17, Article number:  ()Dispensability of genes in a phylogenetic lineage, e.g. a species, genus, or higher-level clade, is gaining relevance as most genome sequencing projects move to a pangenome level. Most analyses classify genes as core genes, which are present in all investigated individual genomes, and dispensable genes, which only occur in a single or a few investigated genomes. The binary classification as ‘core’ or ‘dispensable’ is often based on arbitrary cutoffs of presence/absence in the analysed genomes. Even when extended to ‘conditionally dispensable’, this...

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Side-effects of public health policies against Covid-19: the story of an over-reaction

Side-effects of public health policies against Covid-19: the story of an over-reaction

Explore more contentCiteShareEmbed Let us all take a moment to talk, once again, about this new coronavirus pandemic that the world has been facing since November 2019 and about its global response. After a short period marked by the pandemic underestimation risk by most governments, the Western world went nuts and overreacted, most probably so as not to be accused of inaction. In many cases, the overall benefits of the chosen policies were not sufficiently questioned, which resulted in many side effects on global health .The medical motto “primum non nocere”, a moral principle everyone...

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Jan 29
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Comparing the fit of N95, KN95, surgical, and cloth face masks and assessing the accuracy of fit checking

Comparing the fit of N95, KN95, surgical, and cloth face masks and assessing the accuracy of fit checking

Browse Subject Areas?Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click.The COVID-19 pandemic has made well-fitting face masks a critical piece of protective equipment for healthcare workers and civilians. While the importance of wearing face masks has been acknowledged, there remains a lack of understanding about the role of good fit in rendering protective equipment useful. In addition, supply chain constraints have caused some organizations to abandon traditional quantitative or/and qualitative fit testing, and instead,...

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Review of surgical techniques and guide for decision making in the treatment of benign parotid tumors

Review of surgical techniques and guide for decision making in the treatment of benign parotid tumors

AdvertisementSurgical treatment of benign parotid tumors has developed in the direction of less invasive procedures in recent years and has raised great debate about the best surgical approach. Aim of this article is to analyse anatomical and other factors that are important in selection of the appropriate surgical technique in treatment of benign parotid tumors. Furthermore, to discuss the risk of complications and recurrent disease according to selected operation. Finally, to define patient selection criteria to facilitate decision making in parotid surgery and become a guide for younger...

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Aug 4
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Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2

Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtainthe best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode inInternet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without stylesand JavaScript.AdvertisementEvolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 78 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.7 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with development of variable...

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Jan 18
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When Autocrats Threaten Citizens with Violence: Evidence from China | British Journal of Political Science | Cambridge Core

When Autocrats Threaten Citizens with Violence: Evidence from China | British Journal of Political Science | Cambridge Core

We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to .Login AlertWhen do autocrats employ propaganda to threaten citizens with repression? Do threats of repression condition citizen behavior? This article develops a theory of propaganda-based threats in autocracies that builds on insights from experimental psychology. It argues that even credible threats of repression are costly, and so are reserved for moments when collective action is most likely. Since threats of repression...

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Jan 21
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Electromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle?

Electromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle?

Article TextEssayElectromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle?New fifth generation (5G) telecommunications systems, now being rolled out globally, have become the subject of a fierce controversy. Some health protection agencies and their scientific advisory committees have concluded that there is no conclusive scientific evidence of harm. Several recent reviews by independent scientists, however, suggest that there is significant uncertainty on this question, with rapidly emerging evidence of potentially harmful biological effects from radio frequency...

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University of Edinburgh
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Jan 4
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Roles of Nutrient Limitation on Western Lake Erie CyanoHAB Toxin Production

Roles of Nutrient Limitation on Western Lake Erie CyanoHAB Toxin Production

Next Article in JournalPrevious Article in JournalPrevious Article in Special IssueYou seem to have javascript disabled. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled.Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website.Please let us know what you think of our products and services.Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI.1Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Morehead City, NC 28557, USA2Stone Laboratory and Ohio Sea Grant, The Ohio State...

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Jan 9
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Warthin’s tumour seems to be the most common benign neoplasm of the parotid gland in Germany

Warthin’s tumour seems to be the most common benign neoplasm of the parotid gland in Germany

AdvertisementRecent reports indicate an increase in the prevalence of Warthin’s tumours (adenolymphoma) with percentages which exceed that of pleomorphic adenomas (PA) in the same registries. The purpose of this study is to analyse a large cohort of benign parotid tumours in relation to various demographic and other patients’ characteristics that might affect their incidence.A retrospective review of prospective collected data was performed on all patients who have been operated for a parotid mass in the last 5 years. A total of 474 patients with benign lesion were included in the study....

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Mar 18
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Austerity and the Rise of the Nazi Party | The Journal of Economic History | Cambridge Core

Austerity and the Rise of the Nazi Party | The Journal of Economic History | Cambridge Core

We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to .Login AlertWe study the link between fiscal austerity and Nazi electoral success. Voting data from a thousand districts and a hundred cities for four elections between 1930 and 1933 show that areas more affected by austerity (spending cuts and tax increases) had relatively higher vote shares for the Nazi Party. We also find that the localities with relatively high austerity experienced relatively high suffering (measured by...

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Jan 17
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Herd immunity by infection is not an option

Herd immunity by infection is not an option

Gravediggers bury a deceased COVID-19 patient at the Parque Taruma cemetery, Manaus, Brazil, where the disease has caused a huge number of deaths.PHOTO: BRUNO KELLY/REUTERSHerd immunity is expected to arise when a virus cannot spread readily, because it encounters a population that has a level of immunity that reduces the number of individuals susceptible to infection. On page 288 of this issue, Buss et al. () describe the extent of the largely uncontrolled severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in Manaus, the capital of Amazonas state in Brazil. Their data...

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University of Edinburgh
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Jan 15
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Crop wild relatives of the United States require urgent conservation action

Crop wild relatives of the United States require urgent conservation action

Edited by Peter R. Crane, Oak Spring Garden Foundation, Upperville, VA, and approved November 11, 2020 (received for review April 13, 2020)This study provides conservation assessments for 600 US native plants that are wild relatives of important agricultural crops. We found that more than one-half of the species may be endangered in their natural habitats, and that the great majority require further conservation action, both ex situ (in gene banks and botanical gardens) and in situ (in protected areas). Diversity hotspots across the nation represent focal regions for further collecting for...

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Dec 29
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Causal Geometry

Causal Geometry

Next Article in JournalPrevious Article in JournalPrevious Article in Special IssueYou seem to have javascript disabled. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled.Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website.Please let us know what you think of our products and services.Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI.1Physics of Living Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA2Allen Discovery Center, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155,...

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Dec 26
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