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Scientists claim that all high-energy cosmic neutrinos are born by quasars

Scientists claim that all high-energy cosmic neutrinos are born by quasars

Scientists of the P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LPI RAS), the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and the Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS (INR RAS) studied the arrival directions of astrophysical neutrinos with energies more than a trillion electronvolts (TeV) and came to an unexpected conclusion: all of them are born near black holes in the centers of distant active galaxies powerful radio sources. Previously, only neutrinos with the highest energies were assumed to be obtained in sources of this class.It is believed that there are...

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mipt_eng
5d ago
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Virtual reality program lessens physical side effects of hemodialysis

Virtual reality program lessens physical side effects of hemodialysis

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Hemodialysis patients routinely experience side effects such as fatigue, lightheadedness and nausea during their treatment sessions. But patients in a study who used a virtual reality program to engage in a mindfulness/meditation exercise reported that these treatment-related symptoms were greatly reduced.Patients in the study wore a head-mounted virtual reality display to participate in a 25-minute mindfulness/meditation intervention called Joviality, a fully immersive experience that transported them to settings away from the clinic."While virtual reality has been found...

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3d ago
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Scientists link star-shredding event to origins of universe's highest-energy particles

Scientists link star-shredding event to origins of universe's highest-energy particles

A team of scientists has detected the presence of a high-energy neutrino--a particularly elusive particle--in the wake of a star's destruction as it is consumed by a black hole. This discovery, reported in the journal Nature Astronomy, sheds new light on the origins of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays--the highest energy particles in the Universe.The work, which included researchers from more than two dozen institutions, including New York University and Germany's DESY research center, focused on neutrinos--subatomic particles that are produced on Earth only in powerful...

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nyuniversity
5d ago
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Bioengineered hybrid muscle fiber for regenerative medicine

Bioengineered hybrid muscle fiber for regenerative medicine

Muscle is the largest organ that accounts for 40% of body mass and plays an essential role in maintaining our lives. Muscle tissue is notable for its unique ability for spontaneous regeneration. However, in serious injuries such as those sustained in car accidents or tumor resection which results in a volumetric muscle loss (VML), the muscle's ability to recover is greatly diminished. Currently, VML treatments comprise surgical interventions with autologous muscle flaps or grafts accompanied by physical therapy. However, surgical procedures often lead to a reduced muscular function, and in...

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IBS_media
6d ago
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The Milky Way may be swarming with planets with oceans and continents like here on Earth

The Milky Way may be swarming with planets with oceans and continents like here on Earth

Astronomers have long been looking into the vast universe in hopes of discovering alien civilisations. But for a planet to have life, liquid water must be present. The chances of that finding scenario have seemed impossible to calculate because it has been the assumption that planets like Earth get their water by chance if a large, ice asteroid hits the planet.Now, researchers from the GLOBE Institute at the University of Copenhagen have published an eye-opening study, indicating that water may be present during the very formation of a planet. According to the study's calculations, this is...

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5d ago
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High fructose diets could cause immune system damage

High fructose diets could cause immune system damage

by Swansea scientists in collaboration with scientists at the University of Bristol and the Francis Crick institute in London has indicated that consuming a diet high in the sugar fructose might prevent the proper functioning of peoples' immune systems in ways that has, until now, largely been unknown.Fructose is commonly found in sugary drinks, sweets and processed foods and is used widely in food production. It is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its intake has increased substantially throughout the developed world in recent years....

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5d ago
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Scientists identify over 140,000 virus species in the human gut

Scientists identify over 140,000 virus species in the human gut

Viruses are the most numerous biological entities on the planet. Now researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) have identified over 140,000 viral species living in the human gut, more than half of which have never been seen before.The paper, published today (18 February 2021) in Cell, contains an analysis of over 28,000 gut microbiome samples collected in different parts of the world. The number and diversity of the viruses the researchers found was surprisingly high, and the data opens up new research avenues for understanding how...

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sangerinstitute
Feb 18
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Colorful connection found in coral's ability to survive higher temperatures

Colorful connection found in coral's ability to survive higher temperatures

Anyone who visits the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, Southeast Asia's coral triangle, or the reefs of Central America, will surely speak of how stunning and vibrant these environments are. Indeed, coral reefs are believed to house more biodiversity than any other ecosystem on the planet, with the coral providing protection and shelter for hundreds of species of fish and crustaceans.But these ecosystems are under threat. Global pressures, such as rising ocean temperatures, are causing coral to turn ghostly white, a phenomenon called bleaching, and die. One family of coral - Acropora -...

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oistedu
6d ago
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Origin of life -- Did Darwinian evolution begin before life itself?

Origin of life -- Did Darwinian evolution begin before life itself?

Before life emerged on Earth, many physicochemical processes on our planet were highly chaotic. A plethora of small compounds, and polymers of varying lengths, made up of subunits (such as the bases found in DNA and RNA), were present in every conceivable combination. Before life-like chemical processes could emerge, the level of chaos in these systems had to be reduced. In a new study, LMU physicists led by Dieter Braun show that basic features of simple polymers, together with certain aspects of the prebiotic environment, can give rise to selection processes that reduce disorder.In...

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Feb 19
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An mRNA vaccine for cancer immunotherapy

An mRNA vaccine for cancer immunotherapy

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines to prevent COVID-19 have made headlines around the world recently, but scientists have also been working on mRNA vaccines to treat or prevent other diseases, including some forms of cancer. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Nano Letters have developed a hydrogel that, when injected into mice with melanoma, slowly released RNA nanovaccines that shrank tumors and kept them from metastasizing.Cancer immunotherapy vaccines work similarly to mRNA vaccines for COVID-19, except they activate the immune system to attack tumors instead of a virus. These vaccines...

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ACSpressroom
Feb 17
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Location tracking apps and privacy implications

Location tracking apps and privacy implications

How much personal information can our phone apps gather through location tracking? To answer this question, two researchers - Mirco Musolesi (University of Bologna, Italy) and Benjamin Baron (University College London, UK) - carried out a field study using an app specifically developed for this research. Through the app employed in the study - published in Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies - researchers were able to identify which kind of personal information the app extracted and its privacy sensitivity according to users."Users are largely...

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Feb 19
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Irregular sleep schedules connected to bad moods and depression, study shows

Irregular sleep schedules connected to bad moods and depression, study shows

An irregular sleep schedule can increase a person's risk of depression over the long term as much as getting fewer hours of sleep overall, or staying up late most nights, a new study suggests.Even when it comes to just their mood the next day, people whose waking time varies from day to day may find themselves in as much of a foul mood as those who stayed up extra late the night before, or got up extra early that morning, the study shows.The study, conducted by a team from Michigan Medicine, the University of Michigan's academic medical center, uses data from direct measurements of the...

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umichmedicine
Feb 18
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Older adults and antibiotics: Study shows healthy attitudes but unhealthy practices

Older adults and antibiotics: Study shows healthy attitudes but unhealthy practices

While most adults over 50 understand that overuse of antibiotics is a problem, and say they're cautious about taking the drugs, a sizable minority have used antibiotics for something other than their original purpose, and appear to think the drugs could help treat colds, which are caused by viruses not bacteria.These findings, contained in a , come from a national poll of people between the ages of 50 and 80 carried out as part of the National Poll on Healthy Aging.The authors, from the University of Michigan's Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, say their findings highlight the...

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umichmedicine
Feb 18
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3D-printing perovskites on graphene makes next-gen X-ray detectors

3D-printing perovskites on graphene makes next-gen X-ray detectors

Since Wilhelm Röntgen discovered them in 1895, X-rays have become a staple of medical imaging. In fact, barely a month after Röntgen's famous paper was published, doctors in Connecticut took the first ever radiograph of a boy's broken wrist.There has been a lot of progress since. Aside from radiographs, which most people have taken at least once in their lives, today's X-ray medical uses includes fluoroscopy, radiotherapy for cancer, and computer tomography (CT), which takes multiple X-ray scans of the body from different angles and then combines them in a computer to generate virtual...

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EPFL_en
Feb 17
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Record sunshine during first COVID-19 lockdown largely caused by unusual weather

Record sunshine during first COVID-19 lockdown largely caused by unusual weather

Dry and cloudless weather was mainly responsible for the unusually high solar irradiance in western Europe during the spring of 2020, not the reduction in aerosol emissions due to the first lockdown. This was the result of an international meteorological study, in which scientists from the University of Cologne participated. The results have been published in the current issue of Nature Communications Earth & Environment.A large part of western Europe experienced exceptionally sunny and dry weather from March 23 to the end of May 2020. New sunshine extremes were reported in the United...

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UniCologne
Feb 16
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Partners' company helps us stay connected during pandemic

Partners' company helps us stay connected during pandemic

A pair of UCR studies reveal that living with a romantic partner helps people feel more socially connected during COVID-19. But no other pandemic-era social dynamic carries notable benefits, the researchers found: not your kids, not kibitzing with your bestie on Facetime, and not your adorable-adoring pets."Research prior to the pandemic has long shown that partners are one of the strongest predictors of social connection and well-being," said UCR researcher Karynna Okabe-Miyamoto, lead co-author of the study, published recently in the journal Plos One. "And our research during the current...

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UCRiverside
Feb 16
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Fueling the future: Novel two-polymer membrane boosts hydrogen fuel cell performance

Fueling the future: Novel two-polymer membrane boosts hydrogen fuel cell performance

A considerable portion of the efforts to realize a sustainable world has gone into developing hydrogen fuel cells so that a hydrogen economy can be achieved. Fuel cells have distinctive advantages: high energy-conversion efficiencies (up to 70%) and a clean by-product, water. In the past decade, anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFC), which convert chemical energy to electrical energy via the transport of negatively charged ions (anions) through a membrane, have received attention due to their low-cost and relative environment friendliness compared to other types of fuel cells. But...

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Feb 17
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Strange creatures accidentally discovered beneath Antarctica's ice shelves

Strange creatures accidentally discovered beneath Antarctica's ice shelves

Far underneath the ice shelves of the Antarctic, there's more life than expected, finds a recent study in the journal .During an exploratory survey, researchers drilled through 900 meters of ice in the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, situated on the south eastern Weddell Sea. At a distance of 260km away from the open ocean, under complete darkness and with temperatures of -2.2°C, very few animals have ever been observed in these conditions.But this study is the first to discover the existence of stationary animals - similar to sponges and potentially several previously unknown species - attached...

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frontiersin
Feb 15
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Close up of researcher with plant

Close up of researcher with plant

How do plants build resilience? An international research team led by the University of Göttingen studied the molecular mechanisms of the plant immune system. They were able to show a connection between a relatively unknown gene and resistance to pathogens. The results of the study were published in the journal The Plant Cell.Scientists from "PRoTECT" - Plant Responses To Eliminate Critical Threats - investigated the molecular mechanisms of the immune system of a small flowering plant known as thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). PRoTECT is an International Research Training Group (IRTG)...

eurekalert.org
Feb 16
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Biotech fit for the Red Planet

Biotech fit for the Red Planet

NASA, in collaboration with other leading space agencies, aims to send its first human missions to Mars in the early 2030s, while companies like SpaceX may do so even earlier. Astronauts on Mars will need oxygen, water, food, and other consumables. These will need to be sourced from Mars, because importing them from Earth would be impractical in the long term. In , scientists show for the first time that Anabaena cyanobacteria can be grown with only local gases, water, and other nutrients and at low pressure. This makes it much easier to develop sustainable biological life support...

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frontiersin
Feb 16
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Biotech fit for the Red Planet

Biotech fit for the Red Planet

NASA, in collaboration with other leading space agencies, aims to send its first human missions to Mars in the early 2030s, while companies like SpaceX may do so even earlier. Astronauts on Mars will need oxygen, water, food, and other consumables. These will need to be sourced from Mars, because importing them from Earth would be impractical in the long term. In , scientists show for the first time that Anabaena cyanobacteria can be grown with only local gases, water, and other nutrients and at low pressure. This makes it much easier to develop sustainable biological life support...

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frontiersin
Feb 16
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Mid-life cardiovascular disease prevention may protect against later dementia

Mid-life cardiovascular disease prevention may protect against later dementia

Employing cardiovascular disease prevention strategies in mid-life may delay or stop the brain alterations that can lead to dementia later in life, according to a study in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.Atherosclerosis, or buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on artery walls, is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular diseases, which is the leading cause of death around the world. Dementia is also among the top causes of death and disability around the world, with 50 million people currently living with dementia. The presence of atherosclerosis has...

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ACCmediacenter
Feb 15
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Gene-based blood test for melanoma spread evaluates treatment progress

Gene-based blood test for melanoma spread evaluates treatment progress

A test that monitors blood levels of DNA fragments released by dying tumor cells may serve as an accurate early indicator of treatment success in people in late stages of one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, a new study finds.Led by NYU Grossman School of Medicine and Perlmutter Cancer Center researchers, the investigation looked at adults with undetectable levels of freely circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) four weeks into drug treatment for metastatic melanoma tumors that cannot be removed surgically (unresectable). The study showed that these patients, all of whom had common...

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nyulangone
Feb 12
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Identifying risk factors for elevated anxiety in young adults during COVID-19 pandemic

Identifying risk factors for elevated anxiety in young adults during COVID-19 pandemic

A new study has identified early risk factors that predicted heightened anxiety in young adults during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The findings from the study, supported by the National Institutes of Health and published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, could help predict who is at greatest risk of developing anxiety during stressful life events in early adulthood and inform prevention and intervention efforts.The investigators examined data from 291 participants who had been followed from toddlerhood to young adulthood as part of a larger...

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nimhgov
Feb 12
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Breastfeeding mothers produce COVID-19 antibodies capable of neutralizing virus

Breastfeeding mothers produce COVID-19 antibodies capable of neutralizing virus

MOSCOW, Idaho -- Feb. 9, 2021 -- Breastfeeding women with COVID-19 do not pass along the SARS-CoV-2 virus in their milk but do transfer milk-borne antibodies that are able to neutralize the virus, a multi-institutional team of researchers led by the University of Idaho reported.The team analyzed 37 milk samples submitted by 18 women diagnosed with COVID-19. None of the milk samples were found to contain the virus, but nearly two-thirds of the samples did contain two antibodies specific to the virus."Taken together, our data do not support maternal-to-infant transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via...

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uidaho
Feb 9
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