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Autism severity can change substantially during early childhood

Autism severity can change substantially during early childhood

During early childhood, girls with autism tend to show greater reduction and less rise in their autism symptom severity than boys with autism, a UC Davis MIND Institute has found.Early childhood is a period of substantial brain growth with critical ability for learning and development. It also is the typical time for an initial diagnosis of autism and the best time for early intervention. In the U.S., about , with four times as many boys with ASD as girls.Previous studies indicated inconsistent results in terms of changes in autism severity during childhood. The general sense was that the...

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UCDavisHealth
2d ago
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Study shows erosion of ozone layer responsible for mass extinction event

Study shows erosion of ozone layer responsible for mass extinction event

Researchers at the University of Southampton have shown that an extinction event 360 million years ago, that killed much of the Earth's plant and freshwater aquatic life, was caused by a brief breakdown of the ozone layer that shields the Earth from damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This is a newly discovered extinction mechanism with profound implications for our warming world today.There have been a number of mass extinction in the geological past. Only one was caused by an asteroid hitting the Earth, which was 66 million years ago when the dinosaurs became extinct. Three of the...

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unisouthampton
3d ago
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Solving the space junk problem

Solving the space junk problem

Space is getting crowded. Aging satellites and space debris crowd low-Earth orbit, and launching new satellites adds to the collision risk. The most effective way to solve the space junk problem, according to a new study, is not to capture debris or deorbit old satellites: it's an international agreement to charge operators "orbital-use fees" for every satellite put into orbit.Orbital use fees would also increase the long-run value of the space industry, said economist Matthew Burgess, a CIRES Fellow and co-author of the new paper. By reducing future satellite and debris collision risk, an...

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cubouldernews
5d ago
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New ECU research finds 'Dr. Google' is almost always wrong

New ECU research finds 'Dr. Google' is almost always wrong

Many people turn to 'Dr Google' to self-diagnose their health symptoms and seek medical advice, but online symptom checkers are only accurate about a third of the time, according to new Edith Cowan University (ECU) research published in the Medical Journal of Australia today.The study analysed 36 international mobile and web-based symptom checkers and found they produced the correct diagnosis as the first result just 36 per cent of the time, and within the top three results 52 per cent of the time.The research also found that the advice provided on when and where to seek health care was...

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EurekAlert
May 17
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ALMA spots twinkling heart of Milky Way

ALMA spots twinkling heart of Milky Way

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) found quasi-periodic flickers in millimeter-waves from the center of the Milky Way, Sagittarius (Sgr) A*. The team interpreted these blinks to be due to the rotation of radio spots circling the supermassive black hole with an orbit radius smaller than that of Mercury. This is an interesting clue to investigate space-time with extreme gravity."It has been known that Sgr A* sometimes flares up in millimeter wavelength," tells Yuhei Iwata, the lead author of the paper published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters and a...

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EurekAlert
May 22
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Researchers uncover the arks of genetic diversity in terrestrial mammals

Researchers uncover the arks of genetic diversity in terrestrial mammals

Maximizing the protection of life on Earth requires knowledge of the global patterns of biodiversity at multiple dimensions, from genetic diversity within species, to species and ecosystem diversity. Yet, the lack of genetic sequences with geographic information at global scale has so far hindered our ability to map genetic diversity, an important, but hard to detect, biodiversity dimension.In a new study, researchers from the Universities of Copenhagen and Adelaide have collected and georeferenced a massive amount of genetic data for terrestrial mammals and evaluated long-standing theories...

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EurekAlert
May 22
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New map reveals global scope of groundwater arsenic risk

New map reveals global scope of groundwater arsenic risk

Up to 220 million people worldwide, with approximately 94% of them in Asia, could be at risk of drinking well water containing harmful levels of arsenic, a tasteless, odorless and naturally occurring poison. The global scope of this persistent public health issue is revealed in a new study, in which researchers present the most accurate and detailed global prediction map of groundwater arsenic concentrations to date. It reveals previously unidentified areas of potential arsenic contamination, including parts of Central Asia and broad areas of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Trace amounts of...

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AAAS
May 21
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Newspapers report on car safety recalls less when manufacturers advertise more with them

Newspapers report on car safety recalls less when manufacturers advertise more with them

Is the reporting of media outlets biased in favor of firms that advertise with them? A new study looked at the relationship between advertising by car manufacturers in U.S. newspapers and news coverage of car safety recalls in the early 2000s. The study found that newspapers provided less coverage of recalls issued by manufacturers that advertised more regularly in their publications than of recalls issued by other manufacturers that did not advertise, and this occurred more frequently when the recalls involved more severe defects.The study was conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon...

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CMUScience
May 21
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Double helix of masonry -- Researchers discover the secret of Italian renaissance domes

Double helix of masonry -- Researchers discover the secret of Italian renaissance domes

In a collaborative study in this month's issue of Engineering Structures, researchers at Princeton University and the University of Bergamo revealed the engineering techniques behind self-supporting masonry domes inherent to the Italian renaissance. Researchers analyzed how cupolas like the famous duomo, part of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, were built as self-supporting, without the use of shoring or forms typically required.Sigrid Adriaenssens, professor of civil and environmental engineering at Princeton, collaborated on the analysis with graduate student Vittorio...

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eprinceton
May 18
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Is the simplest chemical reaction really that simple?

Is the simplest chemical reaction really that simple?

Most people think that quantum theory, which describes the motion of molecules and atomic and subatomic particles, is counterintuitive, since quantum mechanics describes behavior at odds with classical mechanics. Even Albert Einstein, who never accepted quantum mechanics, famously said that "He (God or Nature) does not play dice" - meaning that the laws of physics do not surrender to uncertainty or chance as implied by quantum theory.A chemical reaction sometimes occurs in an odd way, since in microscopic view the progress of a reaction is governed by the quantum theory.New research by...

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EurekAlert
May 14
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Astronomers confirm existence of two giant newborn planets in PDS 70 system

Astronomers confirm existence of two giant newborn planets in PDS 70 system

Maunakea, Hawaii - New evidence shows the first-ever pictures capturing the birth of a pair of planets orbiting the star PDS 70 are in fact authentic.Using a new infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for adaptive optics (AO) correction at W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea in Hawaii, a Caltech-led team of astronomers applied a new method of taking family photos of the baby planets, or protoplanets, and confirmed their existence.The team's results are published in today's issue of The Astronomical Journal.PDS 70 is the first known multiplanetary system where astronomers can witness planet...

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EurekAlert
May 18
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Aboriginal rock art, frontier conflict and a swastika

Aboriginal rock art, frontier conflict and a swastika

A hidden Murray River rockshelter speaks volumes about local Aboriginal and European settlement in the Riverland, with symbols of conflict - including a swastika symbol - discovered in Aboriginal rock art.The engravings studied in 188 engravings in a remote South Australian rockshelter are a stark reminder of colonial invasion and the strife brewing in Europe ahead of World War Two, Flinders University archaeologists have revealed.The 'graffiti' has been etched over or adjacent to Aboriginal rock art at a culturally significant rockshelter in limestone cliffs of the Murray River near...

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EurekAlert
May 18
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Impacts of different social distancing interventions detectable two weeks later, shows German modeling study

Impacts of different social distancing interventions detectable two weeks later, shows German modeling study

In Germany, growth of COVID-19 cases declined after a series of three social distancing interventions, detectable at a two-week delay following each intervention, but only after the third- a far-reaching contact ban - did cases decline significantly. These results - from a modeling study designed to better estimate the impact of various levels of social distancing on virus spread - indicate that the full extent of social distancing interventions was necessary to stop exponential growth in Germany, the authors say. Further, the two-week delay it reveals in understanding an intervention's...

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AAAS
May 15
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IU researchers develop electric field-based dressing to help heal wound infections

IU researchers develop electric field-based dressing to help heal wound infections

Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have found a way to charge up the fight against bacterial infections using electricity.Work conducted in the laboratories of the , and has led to the development of a dressing that uses an electric field to disrupt biofilm infection. Their were recently published in the high-impact journal "Annals of Surgery."Bacterial biofilms are thin, slimy films of bacteria that form on some wounds, including burns or post-surgical infections, as well as after a medical device, such as a catheter, is placed in the body. These bacteria generate their...

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IUScienceNews
May 17
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The dreaming brain tunes out the outside world

The dreaming brain tunes out the outside world

Scientists from the CNRS and the ENS-PSL in France (1) and Monash University in Australia have shown that the brain suppresses information from the outside world, such as the sound of a conversation, during the sleep phase linked to dreaming. This ability could be one of the protective mechanisms of dreams. The study, carried out in collaboration with the Centre du Sommeil et de la Vigilance, Hôtel-Dieu, AP-HP - Université de Paris, is published in Current Biology on 14 May 2020.While we dream, we invent worlds that bear no relation to the quietness of our bedroom. In fact, it is rather...

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EurekAlert
May 15
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Genome-wide pattern found in tumors from brain cancer patients predicts life expectancy

Genome-wide pattern found in tumors from brain cancer patients predicts life expectancy

For the past 70 years, the best indicator of life expectancy for a patient with glioblastoma (GBM) -- the most common and the most aggressive brain cancer -- has simply been age at diagnosis. Now, an international team of scientists has experimentally validated a predictor that is not only more accurate but also more clinically relevant: a pattern of co-occurring changes in DNA abundance levels, or copy numbers, at hundreds of thousands of sites across the whole tumor genome.Patients with the genome-wide pattern survive for a median of one year. However, patients without it survive three...

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UofUHealth
May 15
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Modern sea-level rise linked to human activities, Rutgers research reaffirms

Modern sea-level rise linked to human activities, Rutgers research reaffirms

New research by Rutgers scientists reaffirms that modern sea-level rise is linked to human activities and not to changes in Earth's orbit.Surprisingly, the Earth had nearly ice-free conditions with carbon dioxide levels not much higher than today and had glacial periods in times previously believed to be ice-free over the last 66 million years, according to a paper published in the journal Science Advances."Our team showed that the Earth's history of glaciation was more complex than previously thought," said lead author , a Distinguished Professor in the in the at . "Although carbon dioxide...

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RutgersU
May 15
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UHN-U of T-led study shows antiviral drug can speed up recovery of COVID-19 patient

UHN-U of T-led study shows antiviral drug can speed up recovery of COVID-19 patient

(Toronto - May 15, 2020) - An international team of researchers led by Dr. Eleanor Fish, emerita scientist at the Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, and professor in the University of Toronto's Department of Immunology, has shown for the first time that an antiviral drug can help speed up the recovery of COVID-19 patients.According to the new study, published today in Frontiers in Immunology, treatment with interferon(IFN)- α2b may significantly accelerate virus clearance and reduce levels of inflammatory proteins in COVID-19 patients.The research team...

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UHN_News
May 15
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Further evidence does not support hydroxychloroquine for patients with COVID-19

Further evidence does not support hydroxychloroquine for patients with COVID-19

The anti-inflammatory drug hydroxychloroquine does not significantly reduce admission to intensive care or death in patients hospitalised with pneumonia due to covid-19, finds a study from France published by The BMJ today. A randomised clinical trial from China also published today shows that hospitalised patients with mild to moderate persistent covid-19 who received hydroxychloroquine did not clear the virus more quickly than those receiving standard care. Adverse events were higher in those who received hydroxychloroquine. Taken together, the results do not support routine use of...

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BMJ
May 14
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Men's blood contains greater concentrations of enzyme that helps COVID-19 infect cells

Men's blood contains greater concentrations of enzyme that helps COVID-19 infect cells

Evidence from a large study of several thousand patients shows that men have higher concentrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in their blood than women. Since ACE2 enables the coronavirus to infect healthy cells, this may help to explain why men are more vulnerable to COVID-19 than women.The study, published in the European Heart Journal [1] today (Monday), also found that heart failure patients taking drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), did not have...

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escardio
May 10
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How handling meat leads to psychological numbness

How handling meat leads to psychological numbness

Butchers and deli workers become desensitised to handling meat within the first two years of handling it as part of their job say psychologists.The study led by Dr Jared Piazza of Lancaster University recruited 56 people in Lancashire with commercial experience handling meat and another group of 103 people without any such experience.He said: "Thinking about the animal origins of meat and the harm caused to animals for meat production can be psychologically distressing for many people. Presumably, the constant handling of meat requires people to adapt to their environment. After all, it...

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EurekAlert
May 11
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Filming quantic measurement for the first time

Filming quantic measurement for the first time

Quantum physics deals with microscopic systems such as atoms and light particles. It is a theory that makes it possible to calculate the probabilities of the possible results of any measurement taken on these systems. However, what happens during the measurement was a mystery. A team of researchers from the University of Seville, the University of Stockholm (Sweden) and the University of Siegen (Germany) has, for the first time, managed to "film" what happens during the measurement of the quantum system.To do that, they used a strontium ion (an electrically-charged atom) trapped in an...

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unisevilla
May 12
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Laser loop couples quantum systems over a distance

Laser loop couples quantum systems over a distance

Quantum technology is currently one of the most active fields of research worldwide. It takes advantage of the special properties of quantum mechanical states of atoms, light, or nanostructures to develop, for example, novel sensors for medicine and navigation, networks for information processing and powerful simulators for materials sciences. Generating these quantum states normally requires a strong interaction between the systems involved, such as between several atoms or nanostructures.Until now, however, sufficiently strong interactions were limited to short distances. Typically, two...

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UniBasel_en
May 7
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Newly discovered cell type plays crucial role in immune response to respiratory infections

Newly discovered cell type plays crucial role in immune response to respiratory infections

With a discovery that could rewrite the immunology textbooks, an international group of scientists, including the teams of Bart Lambrecht, Martin Guilliams, Hamida Hammad, and Charlotte Scott (all from the VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research) identified a new type of antigen-presenting immune cell. These cells, that are part of an expanding family of dendritic cells, play a crucial role presenting antigens to other immune cells during respiratory virus infections, and could explain how convalescent plasma helps to boost immune responses in virus-infected patients.Inflammation and...

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VIBLifeSciences
May 8
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Police stop fewer black drivers at night when a 'veil of darkness' obscures their race

Police stop fewer black drivers at night when a 'veil of darkness' obscures their race

The largest-ever study of alleged racial profiling during traffic stops has found that blacks, who are pulled over more frequently than whites by day, are much less likely to be stopped after sunset, when "a veil of darkness" masks their race.That is one of several examples of systematic bias that emerged from a five-year study that analyzed 95 million traffic stop records, filed by officers with 21 state patrol agencies and 35 municipal police forces from 2011 to 2018.The Stanford-led study also found that when drivers were pulled over, officers searched the cars of blacks and Hispanics...

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stanfordeng
May 6
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