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Persistent metabolic youth in the aging female brain

Persistent metabolic youth in the aging female brain

Edited by Peter L. Strick, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, and approved December 21, 2018 (received for review September 14, 2018)Prior work has identified many sex differences in the brain, including during brain aging and in neurodegenerative diseases. Notably, many of these studies are performed by comparing age-matched females and males. Evolutionary theorists have predicted that females might have more youthful brains (neoteny) as compared with males, but until now findings in support of this theory have been limited to postmortem transcriptional analysis, some of which is...

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February 11, 2019
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Study uncovers new privacy worries for direct-to-consumer DNA testing | National Academy of Sciences

Study uncovers new privacy worries for direct-to-consumer DNA testing | National Academy of Sciences

Genetic testing services that let users upload their own DNA data raise privacy concerns. Image credit: Shutterstock/Sarah Weldon.Genetic testing services let consumers analyze their DNA to learn about their heritage, their relatives, and their risk for certain heritable diseases. But access to such personal data hasn’t been without controversy, stoking privacy fears. A recent in eLife uncovered new reasons to be wary. Researchers found several vulnerabilities in the DNA databases of the companies GEDmatch, MyHertiage, FamilyTreeDNA, and Living DNA that could leave users’ personal genetic...

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February 17, 2020
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Molecular evidence supports Darwin’s adaptationist view, informing the debate over what drives evolution | National Academy of Sciences

Molecular evidence supports Darwin’s adaptationist view, informing the debate over what drives evolution | National Academy of Sciences

Experiments in yeast hint that some recent studies underestimated the influence of positive selection in evolution. Image credit: Mogana Das Murtey and Patchamuthu Ramasamy, CC BY SA 3.0.Myriad genetic differences distinguish the genomes of two species. What fraction of those differences arises by positive natural selection versus random genetic drift is a central question and topic of debate in evolutionary biology. A recent in Nature Ecology & Evolution suggests positive selection could have a larger influence than previously thought.Darwin proposed positive selection—the idea that...

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March 3, 2020
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Diet modulates brain network stability, a biomarker for brain aging, in young adults

Diet modulates brain network stability, a biomarker for brain aging, in young adults

Contributed by Ken A. Dill, January 9, 2020 (sent for review July 30, 2019; reviewed by Peter Crawford and Stephen C. Cunnane)To better understand how diet influences brain aging, we focus here on the presymptomatic period during which prevention may be most effective. Large-scale life span neuroimaging datasets show functional communication between brain regions destabilizes with age, typically starting in the late 40s, and that destabilization correlates with poorer cognition and accelerates with insulin resistance. Targeted experiments show that this biomarker for brain aging is reliably...

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March 10, 2020
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Honeybees use their wings for water surface locomotion

Honeybees use their wings for water surface locomotion

Edited by Howard A. Stone, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and approved October 11, 2019 (received for review June 4, 2019)This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased.We report the honeybee’s propulsion at the air–water interface. Honeybees trapped on a water surface use their wings as hydrofoils, which means their wings generate hydrodynamic thrust. The surface wave and flow patterns generated around the bee are the first indication that the...

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December 3, 2019
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Delayed negative effects of prosocial spending on happiness

Delayed negative effects of prosocial spending on happiness

Edited by James J. Heckman, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, and approved January 20, 2020 (received for review August 17, 2019)Governments around the world increasingly acknowledge the role of happiness as a societal objective and implement policies that target national wellbeing levels. Knowledge about the determinants of happiness, however, is still limited. A longstanding candidate is prosocial behavior. Our study empirically investigates the causal effect of prosocial behavior on happiness in a high-stakes decision experiment. While we confirm previous findings of a positive effect...

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March 4, 2020
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Signing at the beginning versus at the end does not decrease dishonesty

Signing at the beginning versus at the end does not decrease dishonesty

Edited by Lee D. Ross, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and approved February 7, 2020 (received for review July 15, 2019)In 2012, five of the current authors published a paper in PNAS showing that people are more honest when they are asked to sign a veracity statement at the beginning instead of at the end of a tax or insurance audit form. In a recent investigation, across five related experiments we failed to find an effect of signing at the beginning on dishonesty. Following up on these studies, we conducted one preregistered, high-powered direct replication of experiment 1 of the PNAS...

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March 11, 2020
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Effect of a ketogenic diet on hepatic steatosis and hepatic mitochondrial metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Effect of a ketogenic diet on hepatic steatosis and hepatic mitochondrial metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Contributed by Gerald I. Shulman, January 31, 2020 (sent for review December 26, 2019; reviewed by Fredrik Karpe and Roy Taylor)Ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we present evidence that hepatic mitochondrial fluxes and redox state are markedly altered during ketogenic diet-induced reversal of NAFLD in humans. Ketogenic diet for 6 d markedly decreased liver fat content and hepatic insulin resistance. These changes were associated with increased net hydrolysis of liver triglycerides and decreased endogenous glucose production and...

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March 11, 2020
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Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes

Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes

Contributed by Colin Renfrew, March 30, 2020 (sent for review March 17, 2020; reviewed by Toomas Kivisild and Carol Stocking)This is a phylogenetic network of SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled from across the world. These genomes are closely related and under evolutionary selection in their human hosts, sometimes with parallel evolution events, that is, the same virus mutation emerges in two different human hosts. This makes character-based phylogenetic networks the method of choice for reconstructing their evolutionary paths and their ancestral genome in the human host. The network method has...

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April 8, 2020
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Monarch butterfly and milkweed declines substantially predate the use of genetically modified crops

Monarch butterfly and milkweed declines substantially predate the use of genetically modified crops

Edited by Peter Kareiva, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, and approved December 24, 2018 (received for review July 3, 2018)This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased.The recent decline of the monarch butterfly has attracted a great deal of attention. One of the leading hypotheses blames genetically modified (GM) crops, ostensibly because of the impact of GM-related herbicide use on the monarch’s food plants, milkweeds. Here, we use museum...

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February 11, 2019
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University of Michigan

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511436 Guangzhou

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7610001

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7610001 Rehovot

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aArchaeal Virology Unit

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aDepartment of Biochemistry

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aDepartment of Biology

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