sciencemag.org
sciencemag.org
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals. It was first published in 1880, is currently circulated weekly and has a subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is 570,400 people.Source
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Fossil captures ancient ‘hell ant’ in action

Fossil captures ancient ‘hell ant’ in action

A new fossil reveals how a mysterious ancient insect captured its meals.The discovery depicts a 99-million-year-old encounter between a “hell ant,” one of the earliest known ants, and its prey, an extinct relative of the cockroach. Preserved in amber, the ant, less than half the length of a dime, grasps the victim’s neck between two sharp mandibles and a hornlike protrusion on its head (pictured left, illustrated right).The find highlights hell ants’ strange anatomy. Whereas the mandibles of modern ants (as well as all adult insects) move horizontally, those of hell ants moved vertically,...

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How hair deforms steel

How hair deforms steel

You are currently viewing the abstract.AAAS login provides access to Science for AAAS members, and access to other journals in the Science family to users who have purchased individual subscriptions.Log in via OpenAthens.Log in with your institution via Shibboleth.Download and print this article for your personal scholarly, research, and educational use.Buy a single issue of Science for just $15 USD.Razors eventually become dull after shaving even though the blade is about 50 times harder than the hair. Whereas edge rounding and brittle cracking of a blade's hard coating were thought to be...

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1Department of Materials Science
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Human sperm uses asymmetric and anisotropic flagellar controls to regulate swimming symmetry and cell steering

Human sperm uses asymmetric and anisotropic flagellar controls to regulate swimming symmetry and cell steering

Flagellar beating drives sperm through the female reproductive tract and is vital for reproduction. Flagellar waves are generated by thousands of asymmetric molecular components; yet, paradoxically, forward swimming arises via symmetric side-to-side flagellar movement. This led to the preponderance of symmetric flagellar control hypotheses. However, molecular asymmetries must still dictate the flagellum and be manifested in the beat. Here, we reconcile molecular and microscopic observations, reconnecting structure to function, by showing that human sperm uses asymmetric and anisotropic...

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1Department of Engineering Mathematics
Jul 1
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This tiny camera can show the world from a bug’s point of view

This tiny camera can show the world from a bug’s point of view

To save energy, many insects swivel their head—instead of their entire body—to scan the world around them. Researchers have now replicated this with a tiny camera with a one-of-a-kind arm they can maneuver from a smartphone. The total system weighs just 248 milligrams—less than a dollar bill.When strapped onto a beetle’s back, the camera can stream video in close to real time. It can also pivot to provide a panoramic view from the beetle’s perspective (as seen in this video). What’s more, when the camera was mounted onto an insect-size robot, the bot used up to 84 times less energy by...

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NewsfromScience
Jul 27
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Designer antibodies could battle COVID-19 before vaccines arrive

Designer antibodies could battle COVID-19 before vaccines arrive

Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center and the Heising-Simons Foundation.While the world is transfixed by the high-stakes race to develop a COVID-19 vaccine, an equally crucial competition is heating up to produce targeted antibodies that could provide an instant immunity boost against the virus. Clinical trials of these monoclonal antibodies, which could both prevent and treat the disease, are already underway and could produce signs of efficacy in the next few months, perhaps ahead of vaccine trials. “If you were going to put your money down, you would bet that...

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NewsfromScience
3d ago
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Doctors diagnose advanced cancer—in a dinosaur

Doctors diagnose advanced cancer—in a dinosaur

This deformed bone is the first clear example of a malignant tumor diagnosed in a dinosaur. The partial fibula—a bone from the lower leg—belonged to a horned, plant-eating Centrosaurus that lived roughly 76 million years ago in what is now Dinosaur Park in southern Alberta in Canada.Paleontologists initially thought the bone’s strange shape was due to a fracture that hadn’t healed cleanly. But a new study, published today in The Lancet Oncology, compares the internal structure of the fossil (above) with a bone tumor from a human patient to seek a diagnosis. The conclusion: , a cancer that,...

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4d ago
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Twitter account of embattled #MeTooSTEM founder suspended

Twitter account of embattled #MeTooSTEM founder suspended

Twitter has suspended the account of MeTooSTEM founder BethAnn McLaughlin after allegations emerged that the former Vanderbilt University neuroscientist fabricated the Twitter account of an apparently nonexistent female Native American anthropologist at Arizona State University (ASU) who had claimed to be an anonymous victim of sexual harassment by a Harvard professor. McLaughlin announced on 31 July that Alepo, the woman supposedly behind the @Sciencing_Bi account, had died after a COVID-19 infection. The company has also suspended that pseudonymous account. of McLaughlin’s recent actions...

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4d ago
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Tracking California’s sinking coast from space: Implications for relative sea-level rise

Tracking California’s sinking coast from space: Implications for relative sea-level rise

Coastal vertical land motion affects projections of sea-level rise, and subsidence exacerbates flooding hazards. Along the ~1350-km California coastline, records of high-resolution vertical land motion rates are scarce due to sparse instrumentation, and hazards to coastal communities are underestimated. Here, we considered a ~100-km-wide swath of land along California’s coast and performed a multitemporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) analysis of large datasets, obtaining estimates of vertical land motion rates for California’s entire coast at ~100-m dimensions—a...

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1School of Earth
Jul 1
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Voltage-induced ferromagnetism in a diamagnet

Voltage-induced ferromagnetism in a diamagnet

Increasingly impressive demonstrations of voltage-controlled magnetism have been achieved recently, highlighting potential for low-power data processing and storage. Magnetoionic approaches appear particularly promising, electrolytes and ionic conductors being capable of on/off control of ferromagnetism and tuning of magnetic anisotropy. A clear limitation, however, is that these devices either electrically tune a known ferromagnet or electrically induce ferromagnetism from another magnetic state, e.g., antiferromagnetic. Here, we demonstrate that ferromagnetism can be voltage-induced even...

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1Department of Chemical Engineering
Jul 1
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A polymer-based systemic hemostatic agent

A polymer-based systemic hemostatic agent

Uncontrolled noncompressible hemorrhage is a major cause of mortality following traumatic injuries in civilian and military populations. An injectable hemostat for point-of-care treatment of noncompressible hemorrhage represents an urgent medical need. Here, we describe an injectable hemostatic agent via polymer peptide interfusion (HAPPI), a hyaluronic acid conjugate with a collagen-binding peptide and a von Willebrand factor–binding peptide. HAPPI exhibited selective binding to activated platelets and promoted their accumulation at the wound site in vitro. In vivo studies in mouse tail...

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1John A. Paulson School of Engineering
Jul 1
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Antiabortion ethicists and scientists dominate Trump’s fetal tissue review board

Antiabortion ethicists and scientists dominate Trump’s fetal tissue review board

Last summer, the Trump administration clamped down on federally funded fetal tissue research by . Research advocates were eager to learn who Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Alex Azar would appoint to the board and to see its ideological makeup. Today they got their first look as it gathered online for a one-time run by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).Although the 1-hour public portion of the meeting was perfunctory—limited to introductions and public comments—it offered a glimpse of the opposition that may greet proposals to work with fetal tissue donated after elective...

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NewsfromScience
7d ago
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Mandated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination predicts flattened curves for the spread of COVID-19

Mandated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination predicts flattened curves for the spread of COVID-19

BCG vaccination may reduce the risk of a range of infectious diseases, and if so, it could serve as a protective factor against COVID-19. Here, we compared countries that mandated BCG vaccination at least until 2000 with countries that did not. To minimize any systematic effects of reporting biases, we analyzed the rate of the day-by-day increase in both confirmed cases (135 countries) and deaths (134 countries) in the first 30-day period of country-wise outbreaks. The 30-day window was adjusted to begin at the country-wise onset of the pandemic. Linear mixed models revealed a significant...

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1Department of Psychology
Jul 31
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The immunogenetics of sexual parasitism

The immunogenetics of sexual parasitism

You are currently viewing the abstract.AAAS login provides access to Science for AAAS members, and access to other journals in the Science family to users who have purchased individual subscriptions.Log in via OpenAthens.Log in with your institution via Shibboleth.Download and print this article for your personal scholarly, research, and educational use.Buy a single issue of Science for just $15 USD.Sexual parasitism has evolved as a unique mode of reproduction among deep-sea anglerfishes. The permanent attachment of males to host females observed in these species represents a form of...

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1Department of Developmental Immunology
Jul 30
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Adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in BALB/c mice for testing vaccine efficacy

Adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in BALB/c mice for testing vaccine efficacy

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has prioritized the development of small animal models for SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (termed MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung, and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice following intranasal inoculation. Deep sequencing revealed a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence. In particular, the N501Y mutation is...

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1State Key Laboratory of Pathogen
Jul 30
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Many beloved garden flowers originated in this mountain hot spot—the oldest of its kind on Earth

Many beloved garden flowers originated in this mountain hot spot—the oldest of its kind on Earth

The Hengduan Mountains adjoining Asia’s massive Tibetan Plateau are a place of superlatives. Four major rivers, including the Mekong and the Yangtze, flow through deep valleys. In winter, snow blankets the peaks, and in summer fierce monsoon rains pelt them. And one of the world’s richest alpine plant communities, boasting more than 3000 species, cloaks the slopes.“It’s a fascinating place, especially botanically,” says Richard Ree, an evolutionary biologist at the Field Museum. At first glance, he notes, the alpine meadows on the high slopes of the Hengduan peaks look like those found in...

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NewsfromScience
Jul 30
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Two new medicines may curb serious respiratory disease in infants

Two new medicines may curb serious respiratory disease in infants

Half a century of research has failed to thwart respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which causes severe disease in the lower airways and lungs of some 3 million newborn children and kills more than 100,000 worldwide each year. But now, two different approaches have had success. One gives a monoclonal antibody against RSV to the babies, whereas the other vaccinates their mothers against the virus, presumably leading to antibodies that protect their children.Although more studies are needed before either product comes to market, the results, both published today in The New England Journal of...

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NewsfromScience
Jul 29
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Desert quakes may have boosted chances of ‘big one’ striking California

Desert quakes may have boosted chances of ‘big one’ striking California

A pair of earthquakes that struck the remote California desert 1 year ago have raised the risk of “the big one” hitting Southern California, according to a new study. The research finds that the 2019 Ridgecrest, California, quakes shifted underground stresses, making the San Andreas fault—the state’s longest and most dangerous fault—three times more likely to rupture.“You would think an earthquake … out in the desert would have no impact on Los Angeles,” says Ross Stein, a seismologist and one of the authors of the new study. “But that is because we do not appreciate the way the network of...

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NewsfromScience
Jul 13
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Siberia’s ‘gateway to the underworld’ grows as record heat wave thaws permafrost

Siberia’s ‘gateway to the underworld’ grows as record heat wave thaws permafrost

On a spring day in 2019, Alexander Kizyakov rappelled down the 60-meter headwall of the Batagay megaslump in eastern Siberia, pausing to chisel out chunks of ice-rich soil that had been frozen for eons. “One of my hobbies is rock climbing,” says Kizyakov, a permafrost scientist at Lomonosov Moscow State University. Colleagues below sampled the most ancient soil along the base of the cliff. Such work is too dangerous in summertime, when the constant crackling of melting ice is punctuated by groans as slabs of permafrost, some as big as cars, shear off the headwall.Known to locals as the...

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NewsfromScience
Jul 28
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Aftermath

Aftermath

You are currently viewing the summary.AAAS login provides access to Science for AAAS members, and access to other journals in the Science family to users who have purchased individual subscriptions.Log in via OpenAthens.Log in with your institution via Shibboleth.Download and print this article for your personal scholarly, research, and educational use.Buy a single issue of Science for just $15 USD.This year marks the 75th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, on 6 and 9 August, respectively. In addition to the more than 200,000 who died in the blasts and in the...

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Hiroshima
Jul 24
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Non-neuronal expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the olfactory system suggests mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated anosmia

Non-neuronal expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the olfactory system suggests mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated anosmia

Altered olfactory function is a common symptom of COVID-19, but its etiology is unknown. A key question is whether SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) – the causal agent in COVID-19 – affects olfaction directly, by infecting olfactory sensory neurons or their targets in the olfactory bulb, or indirectly, through perturbation of supporting cells. Here we identify cell types in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb that express SARS-CoV-2 cell entry molecules. Bulk sequencing demonstrated that mouse, non-human primate and human olfactory mucosa expresses two key genes involved in CoV-2 entry, ACE2 and...

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1Harvard Medical School Department of Neurobiology
Jul 24
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Multichannel optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway using microfabricated LED cochlear implants in rodents

Multichannel optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway using microfabricated LED cochlear implants in rodents

AAAS login provides access to Science for AAAS members, and access to other journals in the Science family to users who have purchased individual subscriptions.Log in via OpenAthens.Log in with your institution via Shibboleth.Download and print this article for your personal scholarly, research, and educational use.Buy a single issue of Science for just $15 USD.Vol 12, Issue 55322 July 2020Vol 369, Issue 6502© 2020 . All rights reserved. AAAS is a partner of , , , , ,  and .Science Translational Medicine ISSN 1946-6242.

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1Institute for Auditory Neuroscience
Jul 22
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An alphavirus-derived replicon RNA vaccine induces SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in mice and nonhuman primates

An alphavirus-derived replicon RNA vaccine induces SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in mice and nonhuman primates

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, is having a deleterious impact on health services and the global economy, highlighting the urgent need for an effective vaccine. Such a vaccine would need to rapidly confer protection after one or two doses and would need to be manufactured using components suitable for scale-up. Here, we developed an alphavirus-derived replicon RNA vaccine candidate, repRNA-CoV2S, encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The RNA replicons were formulated with Lipid InOrganic Nanoparticles (LION) that were designed to enhance...

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1Department of Microbiology
Jul 20
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Ancient skull could be ‘missing link’ between African and American crocodiles

Ancient skull could be ‘missing link’ between African and American crocodiles

An ancient crocodile species could have close evolutionary ties to modern American crocs.In a new study, researchers re-examined a 7-million-year-old crocodile skull from an ancient species known as Crocodylus checchiai (pictured). The fossil was originally discovered in 1939 in northern Libya, and the scientists hoped to better describe the prehistoric reptile and explore its relationship to modern American species.The team used computerized tomography to scan the fossil to better visualize the creature’s skeletal structure. , they note today in Scientific Reports. The feature is not found...

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NewsfromScience
Jul 23
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'Trump owes us an apology.’ Chinese scientist at the center of COVID-19 origin theories speaks out

'Trump owes us an apology.’ Chinese scientist at the center of COVID-19 origin theories speaks out

Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center and the Heising-Simons Foundation.The coronavirus pandemic has thrust virologist Shi Zhengli into a fierce spotlight. Shi, who’s been heads a group that studies bat coronaviruses at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), in the city in China where the pandemic began, and many have speculated that the virus that causes COVID-19 accidentally escaped from her lab—a theory . Some have even suggested it could have been engineered there.China has forcefully rejected such claims, but Shi (pronounced SHIH) herself has said very little...

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NewsfromScience
Jul 24
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Global quieting of high-frequency seismic noise due to COVID-19 pandemic lockdown measures

Global quieting of high-frequency seismic noise due to COVID-19 pandemic lockdown measures

Human activity causes vibrations that propagate into the ground as high-frequency seismic waves. Measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread changes in human activity, leading to a months-long reduction in seismic noise of up to 50%. The 2020 seismic noise quiet period is the longest and most prominent global anthropogenic seismic noise reduction on record. While the reduction is strongest at surface seismometers in populated areas, this seismic quiescence extends for many kilometers radially and hundreds of meters in depth. This provides an opportunity to detect subtle...

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1Seismology
Jul 23
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